Latency numbers that every software engineer should know

Latency Numbers (circa 2012) L1 cache reference ……………………. 0.5 ns Branch mispredict ………………………. 5 ns L2 cache reference ……………………… 7 ns Mutex lock/unlock ……………………… 25 ns Main memory reference …………………. …

empty-not-equals-null

Empty != NULL

Just a visual representation of “empty != NULL” …and to emphasize the importance of checking for nullability!